European Union Agency for Network and Information Security

ENISA study into taxonomies for incident detection and prevention

Mon, 01/30/2017 - 12:45

The study i) performs a qualitative assessment on an indicative taxonomy landscape, ii) identifies use cases that would benefit from the use of taxonomies iii) provides a comparison among a variety of related and unrelated taxonomies in order to identify commonalities and differences iv) analyses the complexity of taxonomies in terms of malware incidents in order to illustrate the different ways of describing the same context available in the current landscape.

In particular, for each use case a requirement that a taxonomy should fulfil was identified. These use cases include: i) recording events from different sources, ii) automatic de-duplication, iii) ability to export in other taxonomies, iv) ability to aggregate and search events in the data, v) ability to exchange data with other CSIRTs, vi) feeding threat intelligence and vii) incident report management.

Good practices and recommendations

A set of good practices which take into account the shortcomings of taxonomies, as identified by CSIRTs during the study, highlight that:

  • the top level categorisation of a taxonomy should be simple
  • the categories within a taxonomy should be mutually exclusive
  • taxonomies should support performance measurement
  • taxonomies should have an appropriate level of ease of use

Key recommendations include:

  •A centralised repository for hosting all relevant taxonomies along with their versions should be set up by ENISA. This would be a great benefit to the CSIRTs community as it would not only allow the selection of appropriate taxonomies for specific use cases, but it may also provide a general overview of what taxonomies or variations thereof are used by CSIRTs, which may be particularly useful in keeping statistics.

 •A small set of common taxonomies should be agreed upon by CSIRTs at the EU level for specific use cases. This would provide examples of taxonomies based on the requirements of the CSIRTs network, which can be either implemented or used to implement a modified version of the taxonomy, saving time and effort that would be spent into researching taxonomies.

 • “Other” or “Unknown”, “Tag” field should be used by the owners of taxonomies as an indicator to revise taxonomies, or if there is an increase in that category with incidents or events of the same type. For example, in a case involving ransomware, it is relevant that it should be categorised as ransomware, but also the type of ransomware (such as crypto locker, etc.), if the same tag is repeatedly used then it might also indicate the need for a new field.

 •A roadmap towards standardised exchange formats in the CSIRTs community should be established at the EU level by the CSIRTs network. Such a roadmap should at least consider having CSIRTs agree use cases, definitions and concepts from an operational point of view for each use case; perform quantitative assessment (in addition to the qualitative assessment in this study) on the taxonomies used, a centralised repository for taxonomies, and a list of tags/values that can apply across taxonomies.

Key conclusions of the study, highly relevant for CSIRTs, indicate that:

  •  Taxonomies currently lack terms to properly handle the following: the impact of an incident, incidents with no malice intended, explicit fields for ransomware, whether the incident is confirmed, and the differentiation between intrusion attempts and intrusions.
  • The identified areas for potential improvement of existing taxonomies are based on the complexity, contextual information, mutual exclusivity or ambiguity, performance measurement, impact, sensitivity, confidentiality, and purpose of taxonomies

  • There is currently no consensus on concepts and definitions related to taxonomies. Clear definitions reflecting the operational interpretation of the CSIRTs should be considered as a key success factor towards increasing cooperation between EU Member States.


Full report available online

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Security for Privacy on Data Protection Day

Fri, 01/27/2017 - 14:12

The date marks the anniversary of the Council of Europe's Convention 108 on the protection of personal information, the first legally binding international law in the field of data protection.

Guidelines for SMEs on the security of personal data processing

ENISA shares some of its work in the field of data protection and privacy, with a focus on the  security of personal data processing. The latest report on 'Guidelines for SMEs on the security of personal data processing' attempts to assist in the implementation of the personal data protection regulatory framework by promoting the adoption of security measures to protect privacy.

According to the General Data Protection Regulation, security equally covers confidentiality, integrity and availability, and should be considered following a risk-based approach: the higher the risk, the more rigorous the measures that the controller or the processor needs to take, in order to manage the risk. On this basis and as part of its continuous support on EU policy implementation, the report focuses on SME’s, acting either as data controllers or data processors, and facilitates their understanding on personal data processing operations, and subsequently, on the assessment of the associated security risks.

The objectives of the study are to facilitate SMEs in understanding the context of the personal data processing operation and subsequently assess the associated security risks. Based on that, the study also proposes possible organizational and technical security measures for the protection of personal data, which are appropriate to the risk presented. These measures can be adopted by SMEs in order to achieve compliance with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

Full report available online 

Further work on privacy and data protection by ENISA include:

PETs controls matrix

PETs controls matrix, a systematic approach and tool for assessing online and mobile privacy tools for end users. The ‘PETs control matrix’ can facilitate a standardized and clear presentation of different privacy tools, supporting in this way the possibility of comparative assessments. More in the following link.

Annual Privacy Forum

ENISA’s Annual Privacy Forum (APF) is to be held on the 7th and 8th June 2017 in Vienna, at the University of Vienna, Faculty of Law. The event provides a forum to academia, industry and policy makers for discussions on privacy and data protection topics. The Call for papers for the 2017 APF is now open. Submission until 31st of March 2017.

Stay connected through the RSS feeds, #PrivacyForum_EU on twitter, and the dedicated site



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Being smart about cybersecurity: ENISA at Omnisecure conference

Wed, 01/18/2017 - 15:15

Image source courtesy Omnisecure

ENISA participated this year in a number of sessions throughout the conference in the areas of National Cyber Security Strategies (NCSS), the NIS Directive, the Payment Service Directive (PSD2). The Agency also related these areas to other policy areas through its approach to Cybersecurity Stakeholders and EU cooperation, taking into account the financial impact on the various actors.

ENISA’s key role in NCSS include leveraging existing knowledge and expertise the area, assisting the MS in evaluating current strategies and the development of new. Furthermore the agency promotes EU cooperation through the CSIRTS network and the EU Cooperation Group on NIS. The agency also assists EOS and DSPs on the smooth implementation of the NIS Directive. 

Smart areas studied by ENISA this past year include automotive cyber security, putting forward specific recommendations for the cyber security and resilience of smart cars, and the launch of the CaRSEC (Cars and Roads SECurity) expert group. The Agency has produced a study on securing smart airports as a guide to airport decision makers and airport information security professionals.  The study aims to provide airport operators with a start-up kit to enhance cybersecurity in smart airports, identifies gaps in different areas, and future steps to enhance cybersecurity in the field.

In the finance sector ENISA has looked into the most used payment applications to identify good practices and help the industry in secure mobile payment applications. A report on blockchain looks into the cyber security benefits and challenges of the technology taking into account the most promising implementations and use cases.

In the area of privacy, ENISA has developed the ‘PETs control matrix’ which works as an assessment framework and tool for the systematic presentation and evaluation of online and mobile privacy tools for end users.

Other relevant studies and recommendations by ENISA on the themes of the conference include securing smart homes, secure adoption of cloud for Governments, smart transport and smart cities.


For interviews and media enquiries please contact, Tel. +30 2814 409576

More about Omnisecure and event images



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PETs control matrix: A systematic approach for assessing online privacy tools

Tue, 12/20/2016 - 13:26

The defined framework relies on a set of assessment criteria, which can be broken down into specific parameters and assessment points, acting as indicators of certain properties and features of the tools. A distinction is made between generic criteria (applicable to all tools) and specific criteria (addressing technical characteristics of different categories of tools). For the purpose of this work, the following categories of PETs have been considered: secure messaging, virtual private networks (VPNs), anonymizing networks, and anti-tracking tools (for online browsing).

The ‘PETs control matrix’ is the implementation of the proposed methodology into a practical tool that can be used for performing the assessment of a PET and presenting the relevant results. As such, it comprises different sets of detailed assessment questions (and relevant closed sets of answers) corresponding to the predefined assessment criteria.  In this way, the ‘PETs control matrix’ can facilitate a standardized and clear presentation of different privacy tools, supporting in this way the possibility of comparative assessments.

For the full report

For Annex 1 (assessment questions)

For Annex 2 (Excel tool - WIN version)


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Annual Privacy Forum 2017: Call for papers

Tue, 12/20/2016 - 13:04


ENISA’s Annual Privacy Forum (APF) is to be held on the 7th and 8th June 2017 in Vienna, at the University of Vienna, Faculty of Law.

Call for papers for APF 2017 is now open. Submission until 31st of March 2017.

Papers presenting original work on the themes of data protection and privacy and their repercussions on technology business, government, law, society, policy and on law enforcement. An inter-disciplinary approach is high in demand for APF2017 to contribute to bridging the gap between research, business models and policy much like proposing new models and interpretations. APF2017 seeks contributions from policy makers and implementers, Data Protection Authorities, industry, consultants, NGOs and civil society as well as law enforcement representatives.

For detailed information and the aspects with which research and opinion papers should deal with are available at:

Student Papers. In order to promote participation of young researchers, the submission of papers by students is encouraged. These papers will be treated as thoroughly as full papers, but can be shorter (up to 4000 words) and reflect novel thinking that might not have been fully elaborated just yet.

Short Papers. In addition to student papers, short papers are invited as this call is open to anyone who has a sketch of an idea, opinion or a call for collaboration. Short papers should be up to 4000 words and should not overlap with work published elsewhere.

For more information
please visit: Annual Privacy Forum 2017 - Call for papers

Previous APF editions

Privacy tools, security measures and evaluation of current technologies under the spotlight at this year’s Annual Privacy Forum

2015 Annual Privacy Forum focusing on Privacy Enhancing Technologies

Annual Privacy Forum 2nd edition starts today in Athens

Successful conclusion for the First Annual Privacy Forum

Stay connected
through the RSS feeds, #PrivacyForum_EU on twitter, and the dedicated site

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Cyber security key for the successful adoption of mobile payments

Mon, 12/19/2016 - 09:33

ENISA assessed the most widely used payment applications and their security models to identify good practices. The identified results, validated in a workshop in November 2016, provide some key recommendations included in this report. These include:

  • Customers should adopt minimum security measures when using mobile payment      applications
  • Vendors should provide more visibility of the security measures in applications
  • The mobile payment chain must maintain its security posture irrespectively of  the players involved

Mobile payments provide convenience of use; as it allows customers the freedom to make payments at any given time without the use cards. Mobile payments are expected to grow by 80% percent[1] on a yearly basis in the next five years, but the security of mobile payments applications still remains a key concern.

A key challenge identified is maintaining the security of mobile operating systems at a sufficient level. Mobile OS provide good security when applied, but many customers are not aware of these, and therefore do not use them. Another challenge is the security of the mobile payment chain, the assurance of which is paramount for the successful adoption of mobile payments.

In the context of the NIS Directive[2], ENISA assists Member States and the European Commission by providing expertise and advice, as well as developing and facilitating the exchange of good practices, with the ultimate goal to enable higher level of security for Europe’s critical infrastructure, including finance.

ENISA continues its work with the European Central Bank and the European Banking Authority providing its assistance and expertise on information security issues in the finance sector.  The Agency is also engages with industry through various working groups in the area of finance to exchange information and good practices in information security.

  Full report available online
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The importance of cryptography for the digital society

Mon, 12/12/2016 - 16:20

Within the context of proposals to weakening encryption to facilitate the work of law enforcement, ENISA outlines in seven key messages, the challenges which result from such an act, lowering trust in online services and the smooth implementation of the Digital Dingle Market and EU industry. In the paper it is identified that weakening encryption can affect other aspects of cryptology, and a cost benefit analysis should be deployed prior to any legislation put forward.


ENISA sees that:

  • The use of backdoors in cryptography is not a solution, as existing legitimate users are put at risk by the very existence of backdoors.
  • Backdoors do not address the challenge of accessing of decrypting material, because criminals can already develop and use their own cryptographic tools. Furthermore, new technologies are now being deployed making lawful interception in a timely manner very difficult.
  • Judicial oversight may not be a perfect solution; as different interpretations of the legislation may occur.
  • Law enforcement solutions need to be identified without the use of backdoors and key escrow. It is very difficult to restrict technical innovation using legislation.
  • History has shown that technology beats legislation, and criminals are best placed to capitalise on this opportunity.
  • The perception that backdoors and key escrow exist, can potentially affect and undermine the aspirations for a fully embraced Digital Society in Europe.
  • History has shown that legal controls are not always successful, and may harm and inhibit innovation, as seen with previous US experience.


ENISA collaborates closely with Europol, with the development of an expert working group on the topic, discussing on technical options to meet the needs of law enforcement while advocating the need to maintain strong encryption.

ENISA’s latest opinion paper is available online



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EU Agencies meet at the European Parliament

Tue, 12/06/2016 - 14:57

courtesy #euagencies

High-level speakers of the day included Martin Schulz, President of the European Parliament, Kristalina Georgieva, Vice-President of the European Commission, and Herman Van Rompuy, former President of the European Council.

ENISA – the EU cybersecurity Agency – participates at the two-day meeting, sharing with counterparts the role and the contribution of the Agency to the Digital Single Market for the benefit of citizens, consumers, enterprises and public sector organizations in the Union. The agency is represented by the Executive Director, Udo Helmbrecht and the Head of Administration, Paulo Empadinhas.

The conference emphasizes the benefits EU Agencies bring to the economy, stakeholders and policy-making in Europe.

During the first day of the conference four sessions place focus on i) boosting jobs, growth and investment, ii) citizens first iii) justice and home affairs and an iv) innovative Europe. Two new studies carried out by the European Parliament on the impact of the EU Agencies in the EU will be presented during the meeting. The conclusions of day-1 will be presented the following day outlining the way forward.

Read the full press release



The EU Agencies Network: The 45 decentralised Agencies and Joint Undertakings of the EU closely interact and cooperate within the EU Agencies Network, a pan-European network, set up by the Heads of EU Agencies, as a collective voice for the Agencies to coordinate, exchange information and agree common positions of shared interest.

For more information:

For more details about the Forum, see the Agenda.

Follow the EU Agencies and the event on Twitter via #EUAgencies and #euagenciesforum

Click here and find out more about how the 45 EU Agencies and Joint Undertakings.

Watch videos about the EU Agencies on YouTube here.


EU Agencies press contacts:  and

For press enquiries and  how ENISA contributes to the EU please contact


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ENISA on advancing cybersecurity capabilities and cooperation at ITU regional meeting

Wed, 11/30/2016 - 18:28

On the 29th and 30th November 2016 in Bulgaria, ENISA together with the Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and the Ministry of Transport, Information Technology and Communications of the Republic of Bulgaria organised the Regional Cybersecurity Forum for Europe.

High-level representatives from forty-three European countries from government, public and national authorities, policymakers, service providers, academia, and cybersecurity experts looked into the challenges, good practices, regional cooperation and information sharing in cybersecurity, with a special focus on National Cybersecurity Strategies (NCSS) and National CSIRTs.

Following the welcome notes of Ivaylo Moskovski (Minister of Transport, Bulgaria) and Jaroslaw Ponder (ITU), ENISA’s Head of Core Operations Dr Steve Purser, in his keynote address, gave an overview of the Agency’s activities in the related fields and how it actively contributes and supports the Member States develop cyber responses through trainings, exercises, supporting CSIRTs and the development of NCSS. The recently NIS Directive lays down the requirements to achieve a higher level of security in the Union. Within this frame, Member States are required to establish a national NIS strategy and CSIRT(s). “Cooperation and trust are key to protect critical infrastructures and to advance cybersecurity capabilities across Europe.” said Steve Purser.

More information about the meeting is available online

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Udo Helmbrecht speaks about the need for a strong cybersecurity environment at Think Digital Summit

Wed, 11/30/2016 - 14:44

The impact of the Digital Single Market was at the epicentre of The Think Digital Summit together with Commissioner for Digital Economy G. Oettinger, Belgian Deputy Prime Minister Alexander De Croo, and MEP Marietje Schaake on Tuesday 29th November 2016, in Brussels.

ENISA’s Executive Director, Udo Helmbrecht together with representatives of National Authorities, industry and academia discussed about ‘Cyber space and security for business’, looking into the challenges, threats and the need for cooperation in areas of critical infrastructure such as energy, health, transport and finance and between the public and private sector.

Udo Helmbrecht, who was a speaker at the conference, said: “Finance, ICT and energy sectors have the highest incident costs. Cyber incident figures show up to 1.6% GDP loss in some EU countries. Furthermore, cyber-crime capitalisation in 2016, would reach the level of the second most valuable US company[1]. Legislative initiatives, secure network structure, encryption and standardisation can support towards a strong EU cybersecurity environment”.

The Think Digital Summit is an initiative of European Business Summit. More:    @ebsummiteurope  #td2016

Related material:

ENISA report on cost of incidents

ENISA opinion on encryption  

ENISA-Europol joint statement on encryption 

ENISA opinion on cybersecurity as economic enabler 

ENISA’s work in eIDAS Regualtion 

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please contact



[1] Source: Bloomberg cybercrime cost from Allianz Cyber Risk Guide



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ENISA at Bitkom hub-conference: Feeling secure about your smart device?

Wed, 11/23/2016 - 09:45

This year the Agency shared insights on IoT cybersecurity and smart environments, and showcased a live-demo on securing smart home devices.

The live-demo session, which was presented for the first time, focused on how to securely select, manage and operate smart devices while demonstrating the applicability and cost-effectiveness of good practices. Smart locks served as a representative example of an IoT device. ENISA’s experts illustrated the potential risks presented in products, and proposed a series of recommendations and practical measures to hinder exploit and promote secure use.

Prof. Udo Helmbrecht, Executive Director of ENISA said: “In order to capitalise on the benefits of IoT we need to focus on security and resilience. ENISA works together with industry and the private sector to identify relevant risks and challenges and develop best practices”.

According to ENISA’s studies the main reasons behind the increased cyber security risks associated with IoT, include the lack of a security mindset and standardization, short rollout times for IoT product development, limited device resources, and minimal update mechanisms. These shortcomings can have a strong impact[1] on security. ENISA is active in the IoT domain and has released relevant reports in this area. The Agency believes that the early adoption of its proposed good practices can help boost citizens’ trust and confidence in IoT solutions and pave the way for their wider deployment.

Find out more about ENISA’s work at Bitkom hub-conference:

ENISA’s recommendations at Bitkom in an infographic

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[1] the IoT-enabled Mirai botnet, that was able to take down parts of the Internet (Dyn DDoS attack)



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Growing need for a common security framework, says ENISA Head of Administration at international cybersecurity conference

Thu, 11/17/2016 - 12:37

Image courtesy


ENISA’s Head of Administration, Paulo Empandinhas, was present together with international partners and institutions, and government representatives.

Paulo Empadinhas participated in the panel on "Constitution, State and Cyberspace: Contradiction in terms”? where he spoke on the ‘general data protection regulation and IoT, and the impact in the EU chart of fundamental rights’ explaining the harmonisation, simplification and update in the technological advances that the reform brings.

“Trusting IoT requires a coordinated effort from all actors, as IoT brings smartness and new security challenges” said Paulo Empadinhas. Defining security management at the organisational level, developing information exchange on threats and risks and promoting a common cyber security framework are key to secure IoT. Security concerns include the fact that manufacturers don’t invest in security and the difficulty to secure the entire lifecycle of products, while the notion of security and privacy are closely linked. With this in mind, ENISA proposes the establishment of security procurement guidelines, a framework to evaluate the security of products, and the support of security-driven business models. “There is a need for specific IoT security framework, as safety is a new parameter which needs to be integrated which goes beyond technical requirements. Cross-sector baseline capabilities, public-private collaboration and sectoral guidance, as developed by ENISA, help in this direction” said Paulo Empandinhas.

The event hosted key figures including the Secretary of State for the Presidency of the Council of Ministers Miguel S. Roque and the President of the National Commission for Data Protection Filipa Calvão.

For more information on the event Cyberlaw Research Centre and Institute of Legal and Political Sciences



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Updated Good Practice Guide on National Cyber Security Strategies by ENISA

Mon, 11/14/2016 - 15:20

ENISA publishes its second National Cyber Security Strategy Good Practice Guide, providing an update to the 2012 ENISA guidebook on the design and implementation of a National Cyber Security Strategy (NCSS).

This guide includes an update on the different steps, objectives and good practices of the first edition, and analyses the status of National Cyber Security Strategies in the European Union and EFTA countries. The key aim is to support EU Member States in their efforts to develop and update their NCSS.

Furthermore, the guide proposes a NCCS lifecycle, with a special emphasis on the ‘evaluation and maintaining’ phase. It presents six steps for the design and development of a NCSS and sixteen objectives for the implementation of the NCSS.

The guide can be used as a tool by governmental bodies that are responsible for cyber security strategies. It highlights good practices, identifies gaps and challenges, and suggests key performance indicators (KPIs) for the evaluation phase. It concludes with a set of recommendations on how to proceed with the development and maintenance of a NCSS.

The guide is targeted at public officials, policy makers and entities involved in the lifecycle of the strategy such as private, civil and industry stakeholders.

The recently adopted NIS Directive requires all EU Member States to develop and adopt a NCSS. For this reason, the guide will particularly assist countries that don't have a strategy already in place, through the design and implementation phase, while assist countries which have a strategy, to update and strengthen their NCSS.

The National Cyber Security Strategy Good Practice Guide  is available online.

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Europe’s talents compete at the European Cyber Security Challenge!

Thu, 11/10/2016 - 16:50

image courtesy if(is)

Teams measured their technical and cooperation skills in attacking and defending computer systems, leading the team from Spain to victory, with Romania and Germany reaching the 2nd and 3rd position respectively.

Participants were welcomed to the challenge and were handed their awards by Prof Pohlmann, Thorsten Menne of the Ministry of Innovation, Science and Research of the State of North Rhine Westphalia and the Head of ENISA's Core Operations Department, Dr Steve Purser. Zinaida Benenson, Sn. Researcher, IT Security Infrastructure Lab, University of Erlangen- Nuremberg, in her keynote speech spoke about why ‘hackers are better psychologists than security experts’.

Teams had to deal with vulnerabilities in web applications, binaries and document files, solve crypto puzzles and hack hardware systems. During the three days of the competition participants had the chance to further interact and attend to teambuilding activities, providing the opportunity to make connections with industry and gain insight into the professional IT security field. 

The European Cyber Security Challenge 2016 Final, hosted at Germany, was attended by teams from Austria, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Liechtenstein, Romania, Spain, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Next year’s challenge is planned to take place at Malaga Spain in November 3, 2017.

A call for participation at the European the Cyber Security Challenge 2017 will be issued before the end of 2016. Please refer to ENISA if you wish to receive further information. Get ready to be the next cyber talent!

Follow on Twitter: @enisa_eu,  #EUCSC2016



European Cyber Security Challenge 2016 award ceremony photos

European Cyber Security Challenge 2016:


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Register for workshop on cybersecurity in eHealth

Wed, 11/09/2016 - 09:35

ENISA together with the Austria/Vienna Hospital Association is organising the second ENISA eHealth workshop to support the Member States and raise awareness and on the topic.

The event takes place in Vienna on the 23rd of November. Topics to be discussed span from policy and regulation, to the important technological advancements ICT brings in healthcare.

Some of the designated speakers include:

  • Dr Ben Kokx, Phillips, presenting standardisation activities for medical devices and IoT
  • Dr Dimitris Glynos, explaining how easy it is to actually hack a smart medical device
  • Dr Korpelainen Juha, explaining how a smart hospital is built from scratch
  • Mr Roger Lim, EC DG SANTE, giving an overview of the policy activities for eHealth in the European Commission and the eHealth Network.

Guest speakers will be sharing views during the eHealth security workshop.

To register please visit the link

Workshop agenda

For more information:




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Cyber Insurance: A look at recent advances, good practices and challenges by ENISA

Mon, 11/07/2016 - 08:51

The aim of the report is to raise awareness for the most impactful market advances, by shortly identifying the most significant cyber insurance developments for the past four years – during 2012 to 2016 – and to capture the good practices and challenges during the early stages of the cyber insurance lifecycle, i.e. before an actual policy is signed, laying the ground for future work in the area.

Member States understanding the importance of addressing cyber-risk, have taken relevant action by publishing guides of good cyber-hygiene[1] [2]. Insurance federations have also shown a great interest in cyber-insurance, with actions taking place both at the European and national level.

A rising concern among a number of insurers is found to be the uncertainty around accumulating risk[3]. A subset of key recommendations, for the betterment of the cyber insurance constituency, to policy makers, insurance companies, and future customers include:

  • To policy makers: avoid the introduction of mandatory requirements that might undermine the cyber-insurance market adoption rate
  • To insurance companies: a) consider adopting common standards and methodologies, b) introduce explanatory sessions, and provide customer scenarios and generic examples of policy coverage and c) clarify the policy language and offer a transparent underwriting process
  • To cyber insurance customers: get informed, prepare and document the environment before requesting a cyber-insurance policy.

The report is targeted primarily at insurance companies, to either benchmark themselves against the market trends, or evaluate good practices before entering the market. Additional beneficiaries are customers interested to adopt a cyber insurance policy. Founded to address residual risk, the cyber insurance market is anticipating a growth in both technological and sales volume terms; a growth that is expected to be further accelerated by the legislative additions of the GDPR and NIS Directive.


Full report is available here

For interviews and press enquiries please contact  

[1] France, ANSSI “40 essential measures for a healthy network”

[2] United Kingdom, Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy “Cyber essentials scheme: overview”

[3] For example, in the event that an incident would occur an insurer cannot be certain about the number of customers that would be affected.


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Cyber Security Assesment Netherlands 2016 published

Thu, 11/03/2016 - 16:50

The Cyber Security Assessment Netherlands (CSAN) is published annually by the Dutch National Cyber Security Centre and drawn up in close collaboration between public and private parties. The aim is to offer insight into developments, interests, threats and resilience in the field of cyber security over the period from May 2015 to April 2016. Every edition is translated in English, in order to facilitate knowledge transfer to our partners

In the context of the growing threats in the digital domain, there are four notable developments in the CSAN 2016:

  • Professional criminals carry out long-lasting and high-quality operations
  • Digital economic espionage by foreign intelligence services puts a strain on the competitiveness of the Netherlands
  • Ransomware is commonplace and has become even more advanced
  • Advertising networks have not yet shown the ability to cope with malvertising Last year there was an increase in actual cyber threats.

According to State Secretary Dijkhoff, the findings from the CSAN 2016 are worrisome: "These developments have implications for the whole of the Netherlands and lead to direct action. Through the National Detection Network, the government and the business community keep each other informed about current threats. In the coming period, I am going to put extra effort into this digital dike monitoring. We have to be realistic: no one person can oversee everything all the time. Therefore, the government and society must work together to keep our online world safe. The basis is knowing where vulnerabilities are, sharing that information and then 'closing down the gaps.' "

You can now download the English translation of the Cyber Security Assessment Netherlands 2016 at our website.


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ENISA’s support to EU and National strategies for information security presented at IT workshop

Fri, 10/28/2016 - 15:45

ENISA’s efforts focus on supporting Member States in the area of National Cyber Security Strategies, CIIP, capacity building and the security of emerging technologies. Furthermore an insight was offered on the NIS Directive and how this is translated for industry - for Digital Services Providers (DSPs) and Essential Service Operators (ESOs) – in the relevant sectors energy, banking, healthcare, and transport sector - on incident reporting.

In addition ENISA supports capacity building in the EU, through the cyber exercises and trainings, such as the recently implemented Cyber Europe 2016.

In his presentation Paulo Empadinhas stressed “within this evolving environment collaboration is everything. Failure to detect threats is often more costly than false alarms, while cyber-attacks have become a norm. Member States with the support from ENISA should cooperate to protect critical information infrastructures through sharing of information, developing and deploying good practices and cooperate with National Regulatory Authorities to achieve EU wide harmonisation”.


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DSiN ten-year congress: “Security derives from responsibility”

Thu, 10/27/2016 - 15:09

Prof. Udo Helmbrecht, Executive Director of the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) and member of DSiN’s advisory board participated at the ten year anniversary conference of  ‘Deutschland sicher im Netz e.V.’(DSiN). Dr Thomas Kremer (DSiN Chairman) delivered the welcome speech and Dr Thomas de Maizière, (Federal Minister of the Interior) spoke on the principle of "Security derives from responsibility".

Helmbrecht together with representatives from government and industry were among the panel speakers on the “Triangle for IT security - regulation, technology, education”. Panellists discussed the increasing digitisation which is transforming into a core foundation for business, society and government, while looking into the challenges this brings to the legal framework, the security of services and devices (PbD), and citizens’ e-skills and awareness of the digital environment. The underlying notion of the associated responsibility and the importance of trust and safety, was key part of the discussion. 

Udo Helmbrecht highlighted “the latest initiatives of the European Commission, notably the NIS Directive and the GDPR,  can contribute towards addressing key technical challenges and act as a tool to build trust and a more resilient environment for businesses and citizens”. His recommendations for the future include: standardisation of IT security, ‘friendly’ and ‘neutral’ technological legislative initiatives, and a secure network structure using strong encryption.

ENISA reiterated its commitment and support to DSiN and public-private partnerships (PPPs) which help address business and consumer/citizens needs at a regional, national and EU level and the advancement of the DSM objectives.

The event is live streamed. For more information visit

Background: DsiN strengthens the security awareness of consumers as well as small and medium-sized enterprises on the Internet and provides concrete support. DsiN was founded in the National IT Summit of the Federal Government and has been under the patronage of the Federal Ministry of the Interior since 2007 (source: DSiN).

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4th Week ECSM: Mobile Malware

Mon, 10/24/2016 - 09:35

About Mobile Malware

Mobile malware is malicious software which targets mobile devices.

We increasingly depend on mobile devices. Cybercriminals use this to their advantage, to get access to information and money, or to just do harm, while also developing a number of threats which are particularly designed to operate on mobile platforms.

The main threats include: use and download of apps, mobile banking malware, mobile ransomware, web-based threats, and unsecure Wi-Fi connections.

How to protect yourself

  • Install apps from trusted sources only
  • Don’t click on links or attachments in unsolicited emails or text messages
  • Log out of sites after you have made a payment
  • Keep your operating system and apps updated
  • Turn off Wi-Fi, location services and Bluetooth when not in use
  • Avoid giving out personal information
  • Don’t jailbreak your device
  • Back up your data
  • Install a mobile security app

Material on Mobile Malware

Detailed material on mobile malware in over twenty (20) languages, including infographics, info-sheets with tips to businesses and users, and videos, are available on Europol EC3 website and take a look at the Mobile malware video.

Follow #MobileMalware

Workshop on Mobile Malware

As part of the Cyber Security Month, a course has been organized in collaboration with the Cyber Crime Unit of Greece and ENISA. The topic of the session, coincides with the Mobile Malware theme of the week promoted by Europol.

This is a closed event for members of Greek law enforcement.


Follow #CyberSecMonth, #OctoberNIS, #CyberAware

Cyber security is a shared responsibility! STOP.THINK.CONNECT

European Cyber Security Month: get in the driving seat of your own online security

2nd Week ECSM: Cyber Safety

3rd Week ECSM: Cyber  Training


Full list of partners at 


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